Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when a group of people make decisions based on what they believe is the consensus of the group, rather than through a critical evaluation of the problem at hand. This phenomenon can occur in a wide range of settings, including work teams, board meetings, and even government agencies.
Symptoms of groupthink
There are several symptoms of groupthink that can occur in a group decision-making process. One of the main symptoms is the suppression of dissenting opinions. When members of the group feel pressure to conform to the group’s perspective, they may avoid expressing ideas that challenge the group’s consensus. This can lead to a narrow range of solutions being considered, and a failure to explore all possible options.
Another symptom of groupthink is the illusion of invulnerability. This occurs when members of the group believe that they are immune to failure or that their decisions are infallible. This can result in a group that is overconfident and fails to consider potential risks or negative consequences.
The Risks of Groupthink The risks of groupthink can be significant, particularly when the decisions made by the group have far-reaching consequences. One of the main risks of groupthink is the potential for flawed decisions. When a group fails to explore all possible options or does not consider all available information, the decisions they make may not be the best solution for the problem at hand. This can lead to costly mistakes, missed opportunities, and even harm to individuals or organisations.
Another risk of groupthink is the potential for conformity pressure. When individuals within a group feel pressure to conform to the group’s consensus, they may avoid expressing dissenting opinions or raising concerns. This can result in a failure to identify potential risks or negative consequences and can lead to a lack of innovation and creativity within the group.
How to avoid groupthink
There are several strategies that can be used to avoid groupthink in decision-making processes. One of the most effective is to encourage open and honest communication within the group. This can be achieved by providing opportunities for all members to express their ideas and concerns, and by ensuring that dissenting opinions are valued and considered.
Another strategy is to encourage diversity within the group. When a group is composed of individuals with different backgrounds, perspectives, and expertise, they are more likely to consider a wide range of options and identify potential risks and negative consequences.
It is also important to assign a devil’s advocate within the group. This person’s role is to challenge the group’s consensus and to raise concerns or objections. This can help the group to identify potential risks or negative consequences, and to consider a wider range of options.
Finally, it is important to encourage critical thinking within the group. This can be achieved by providing training in critical thinking skills, and by ensuring that members of the group are encouraged to question assumptions and consider alternative perspectives.
Groupthink is a dangerous pitfall of consensus decision-making that can lead to flawed decisions and missed opportunities. By recognizing the symptoms of groupthink and implementing strategies to avoid it, groups can make more informed decisions and achieve better outcomes. Encouraging open and honest communication, diversity, and critical thinking can help to avoid the risks of groupthink and ensure that decisions are based on a thorough evaluation of all available options.
Dennis Relojo-Howell is the managing director of Psychreg.