Home Health & Wellness Understanding Dysphagia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Understanding Dysphagia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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Dysphagia is a medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a condition that affects the ability to swallow food and liquids properly. Dysphagia can cause significant discomfort, and if left untreated, it can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and other complications.

Causes of dysphagia

Dysphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Neurological disorders. Dysphagia is often caused by neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, or stroke. These conditions can affect the nerves and muscles responsible for swallowing, making it difficult to swallow.
  • Muscular disorders. Disorders that affect the muscles responsible for swallowing can also cause dysphagia. Examples include muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis.
  • Structural abnormalities. Certain structural abnormalities, such as a narrowed oesophagus or a tumour, can cause dysphagia.
  • GERD. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can cause dysphagia by irritating the oesophagus and causing inflammation.

Symptoms of dysphagia

The symptoms of dysphagia can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

  • Difficulty swallowing. This is the most common symptom of dysphagia. Patients may experience pain, discomfort, or a sensation of food being stuck in the throat.
  • Regurgitation. Patients with dysphagia may regurgitate food or liquid after swallowing.
  • Coughing or choking. Patients may cough or choke when trying to swallow food or liquid.
  • Heartburn. Dysphagia can cause heartburn or a burning sensation in the chest.
  • Weight loss. Dysphagia can lead to weight loss and malnutrition if not treated properly.

Treatment of dysphagia

The treatment of dysphagia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Some common treatment options include:

  • Medications. Medications can be prescribed to treat the underlying condition causing dysphagia. For example, patients with GERD may be prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to reduce stomach acid production.
  • Swallowing therapy. Swallowing therapy is a type of physical therapy that can help patients with dysphagia strengthen the muscles involved in swallowing.
  • Surgery. In some cases, surgery may be required to correct structural abnormalities that are causing dysphagia.
  • Feeding tube. In severe cases of dysphagia, a feeding tube may be necessary to provide the patient with adequate nutrition.
  • Diet modification. Patients with dysphagia may need to modify their diet to include soft or pureed foods that are easier to swallow.


Preventing Dysphagia

While some causes of dysphagia are unavoidable, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk of developing this condition:

  • Practise good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to infections that can cause dysphagia. Brush and floss your teeth regularly, and visit your dentist for regular checkups.
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol. Smoking and alcohol can increase your risk of developing dysphagia. Quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption can help reduce your risk.
  • Avoid eating too quickly. Eating too quickly can increase your risk of choking and dysphagia. Take your time when eating and chew your food thoroughly.
  • Stay hydrated. Dehydration can make it more difficult to swallow. Drink plenty of water and other fluids to stay hydrated.


Dysphagia is a medical condition that can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. It is essential to recognize the symptoms of dysphagia and seek treatment as soon as possible to prevent complications such as malnutrition and dehydration. Treatment options for dysphagia vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include medications, swallowing therapy, surgery, feeding tube, and diet modification.

Taking steps to prevent dysphagia by practising good oral hygiene, avoiding smoking and alcohol, eating slowly, and staying hydrated can help reduce your risk of developing this condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing difficulty swallowing, speak to a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. With proper treatment, it is possible to manage dysphagia and maintain a healthy and fulfilling life.

David Radar, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle.

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