Concerns have grown about increasing mental health issues among young people in recent years. Rates of depression, anxiety, and self-harm have risen for both males and females. Antidepressant prescriptions for adolescents have also increased since 2005. In England’s last pre-pandemic national survey of youth mental health, 9% of 11–16-year-olds and 15% of 17–19-year-olds reported having an emotional disorder. Worldwide, around 10% of adolescents acknowledge self-harming. In England, hospital emergency department visits for self-harm peak among 15–24-year-old females.
A recent study published in BMJ Mental Health has brought to light significant seasonal trends in mental health issues among UK adolescents and young adults. This groundbreaking research, led by Ruth Jack, PhD, from the University of Nottingham, utilised a vast dataset from the QResearch database and encompassed a wide age range of individuals from 14 to 28 years old.
The study involved over five million individuals and spanned from 2006 to 2019. It specifically examined the incidence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescriptions alongside rates of depression, anxiety, and self-harm. This comprehensive approach offers a thorough understanding of mental health trends within this demographic.
One of the study’s most notable findings is the surge in mental health issues during the autumn months, particularly among adolescents aged 14–18. This period, aligning with the start of the academic year, showed significantly higher rates of SSRI prescribing and consultations for depression and anxiety. The data suggests a clear pattern, with these issues peaking notably in November.
The research also highlighted gender disparities. Females across all age groups presented higher incidence rates of mental health issues compared to males. However, it’s interesting to note that the relative monthly rates were similar between genders. In terms of age, the 14–18 age group was distinctly more affected in autumn compared to the older age brackets.
These findings are not only crucial for UK healthcare providers but also resonate on a global scale. Similar trends have been observed in countries like Canada and the USA, pointing towards a universal need to understand and address seasonal mental health trends, especially in relation to the academic calendar.
While providing valuable insights, the study acknowledges its limitations, primarily its reliance on primary care data. This could mean missing out on cases not seeking professional help. Future research directions include qualitative studies to gain deeper insights and develop targeted interventions.
The study emphasises the need for increased vigilance and support from general practitioners and mental health services during the autumn. Educational institutions and healthcare providers should be prepared for the uptick in mental health issues, especially among younger adolescents, at the start of the academic year.
The research aligns with studies from other countries, demonstrating the global relevance of understanding how seasons and academic pressures impact young people’s mental health. This universal pattern suggests a need for international collaboration in research and policy-making to address these challenges effectively.