A new study has brought fresh insights into the intricate relationship between moral values and political orientation. This comprehensive research, conducted over five distinct studies with a total of 3,327 participants, delves into the complex interplay of moral foundations theory (MFT) and moral convictions across various politically charged issues.
The study primarily investigates whether political leanings moderate the relationship between the perceived relevance of each moral foundation and moral conviction. Moral conviction is defined as the extent to which individuals perceive their attitudes as based on morality. The research takes a closer look at issues including Covid mask mandates, the removal of Confederate monuments, concealed carry of firearms, and legalised abortion.
Paul E. Teas, a doctoral candidate at the University of Illinois Chicago, explained the motivation behind the study: “We were motivated to do the study because we wanted to see whether and how the moral foundations predicted moral conviction—the moral part of attitudes, not just the attitudes themselves.” This emphasis on the moral aspect of attitudes forms a critical part of understanding the results of the study.
The findings were published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Key findings of the research indicate that while political orientation does influence the relationship between moral foundations and moral conviction, the patterns of this influence are not consistent across different issues. This inconsistency challenges some of the predictions made by MFT and other theoretical frameworks. The study’s findings suggest that MFT may be more adept at predicting attitude positions than whether these attitudes are perceived as moral convictions.
The research highlights that some moral foundations, such as authority, may reflect conventional values rather than moral ones. This revelation opens up new avenues for understanding how moral and conventional values are distinguished and how they influence political and moral judgements.
The study begins by setting the context with the onset of the Covid pandemic and the polarising responses to mask-wearing mandates in the US. It illustrates how this health guideline transitioned into a moral issue, underpinned by political divides. The research team then methodically analyses how individuals’ political orientations influenced their moral convictions related to mask mandates, exploring whether this influence extended to other contentious issues.
One of the significant observations is the nuanced and varying influence of political orientation across different issues. For instance, while political differences in moral foundations and moral convictions were evident, they did not consistently align with the hypotheses set forth by MFT.
Teas highlighted this: “Most foundations predicted moral conviction most of the time, but their interaction with political orientation was a mess. We found some political differences in which foundations predicted moral conviction, but they were inconsistent and didn’t always align with MFT.” This result suggests that the relationship between moral convictions and political orientation is more complex than previously understood.
The methodology of the study is rigorous, involving a comprehensive analysis of participants’ responses to various issues. The team employed a hierarchical regression model to test the predictions of moral foundations, examining the interaction between each foundation and political orientation in relation to moral conviction. This approach allowed for a detailed examination of the nuanced ways in which different moral foundations interact with political beliefs.
One of the key conclusions of the study is the need for a more nuanced understanding of how moral foundations theory applies across different political contexts and issues. The findings suggest that while moral foundations do play a significant role in shaping moral convictions, their influence is not uniform and varies depending on the issue at hand and the individual’s political orientation.
This research has significant implications for understanding the dynamics of moral conviction in political contexts. It challenges existing theoretical frameworks and opens up new questions about the complex relationship between morality, politics, and individual beliefs. The study’s findings are particularly relevant in the current political climate, where moral convictions often drive political debates and policy decisions.