Home Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy Overview of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy, Its principles, Process, and Efficacy

Overview of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy, Its principles, Process, and Efficacy

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Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) has steadily gained prominence in the realm of therapeutic interventions, particularly in the treatment of personality disorders, especially borderline personality disorder (BPD). At the heart of TFP lies the potent mechanism of transference, which essentially pertains to the unconscious redirection of feelings, thoughts, and behaviours from an individual’s past onto a present figure, most typically the therapist. 

Origins of TFP

TFP stems from psychoanalytic traditions, which have always underscored the critical role of early relationships in shaping the individual’s personality and emotional development. Otto Kernberg, a leading figure in personality disorder research, played a pivotal role in developing TFP. His goal was to craft an empirically validated and structured approach that was rooted in Freudian theory, yet adapted to address the unique challenges posed by patients with severe personality disorders.

Core principles

  • Transference dynamics. Central to TFP is the exploration of the transference relationship. In therapy, patients often unconsciously assign to their therapists roles based on significant figures from their past. Through TFP, these projections are gently brought into the open, enabling patients to gain insights into their relational patterns.
  • Duality of perception. TFP believes that patients, especially those with BPD, possess split self and object representations. This means that they see themselves and others in black-and-white terms. Over the course of therapy, the aim is to help patients integrate these split perceptions, fostering a more holistic understanding of self and others.
  • Explicit treatment contract. TFP begins with a clear treatment contract wherein the roles and responsibilities of both the therapist and patient are explicitly defined. This clarity helps in establishing a safe and structured environment, crucial for patients with personality disorders.

The TFP process

The course of TFP usually follows a set pattern:

  • Diagnostic phase. This initial phase aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s internal world, focusing on their interpersonal relationships, self-concept, and predominant emotional states.
  • Exploration of transference. With a diagnostic profile in hand, the therapist then shifts focus towards understanding the dynamics of transference. Through meticulous observation and dialogue, the therapist helps the patient unearth their unconscious projections.
  • Confrontation and clarification. Once transference patterns are identified, they are confronted but in a gentle and empathetic manner. The therapist clarifies misconceptions, helping the patient to differentiate between past traumas and present realities.
  • Integration. As therapy progresses, patients begin to piece together their fragmented perceptions. This integration fosters a more mature and stable sense of self and improved relational capacities.

Efficacy and application

Research indicates that TFP can be particularly effective for individuals with BPD, aiding in reducing self-harm, improving relational dynamics, and enhancing overall quality of life. Moreover, the structured nature of TFP ensures that the therapy remains focused and goal-oriented, a boon especially when working with individuals prone to emotional volatility.

However, like all therapeutic interventions, TFP is not without its challenges. The deep exploration of past traumas can sometimes be distressing. It’s essential for therapists to maintain a delicate balance, ensuring that the therapeutic process remains both insightful and supportive.


Transference-focused psychotherapy, though rooted in age-old Freudian concepts, has proven itself as a relevant and effective contemporary therapeutic approach, especially for those grappling with complex personality disorders. By spotlighting the transference mechanism, TFP offers patients a unique lens to introspect and understand their relational dynamics, fostering healing and personal growth.

Laura Middleton-Hawthorne is a London-based psychotherapist specialising in relational dynamics and contemporary psychoanalytic interventions.

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