The practice of lifestyle medicine, emphasising behavioural change, is increasingly recognised worldwide. Despite extensive public health messaging and individual approaches like health coaching, many healthcare systems are still burdened by chronic, modifiable conditions. In this landscape, nudging behaviour in primary care and allied health settings emerges as a promising strategy to support behavioural change. An analytic review was published in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.
Originating from behavioural economics and political theory, nudging was popularised by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein in 2008. It relies on “choice architecture” and “libertarian paternalism”, subtly influencing choices while preserving individual freedom. This approach increases the likelihood of a particular choice by modifying the environment or elements within it to cue desired cognitive processes. For instance, directional arrows on pavements encourage pedestrians to walk on one side, and the strategic placement of waste bins facilitates recycling. Despite some criticisms regarding autonomy and the sustainability of behavioural change, nudging is gaining traction in various sectors, including healthcare.
Lifestyle medicine applies environmental, behavioural, medical, and motivational principles to manage lifestyle-related health problems. Nudging complements this by creating environments that make healthier choices more accessible and natural. This integration could significantly impact public health, offering a middle ground between broad public health messages and targeted individual interventions.
A systematic review published in 2020 analysed 66 studies focusing on nudging lifestyle behaviour in diet, exercise, weight, and sleep, with a majority showing positive results. However, none of these studies were conducted in healthcare settings, highlighting a gap in current research. This underscores the need for more investigation into how nudging can be effectively implemented in healthcare environments.
Healthcare professionals can employ various nudges, like redesigning clinic layouts to promote healthy behaviours subtly. For example, placing fruit at eye level in clinics encourages healthier snacking choices. Other methods include adjusting waiting room environments, such as displaying nature imagery to reduce stress or tuning televisions to nature documentaries. These minor changes can collectively contribute to a health-oriented environment.
While nudging offers great potential, it also faces challenges. Ensuring cost-effectiveness and addressing the complexity of long-term behavioural change are crucial. Moreover, maintaining respect for individual autonomy is vital. Future research should focus on identifying a range of effective nudges in healthcare settings, considering these factors.