The concept of mental effort has long been a subject of intense study and debate. Traditionally, cognitive perspectives, such as cognitive load theory, have dominated discussions, focusing on the complexity of learning tasks and the cognitive resources required to accomplish them. But a new study urges a reevaluation of this approach, advocating for a more nuanced understanding that integrates motivational aspects. The findings were published in the journal Educational Psychology Review.
The study, conducted by a team of experts in educational psychology, challenges the traditional view by introducing a three-fold concept of effort in learning. This novel approach includes “effort-by-complexity”, “effort-by-need frustration”, and “effort-by-allocation”, each stemming from different psychological sources and having unique implications for learning.
- Effort-by-complexity: the cognitive load perspective. Effort-by-complexity relates to the intrinsic difficulty of a task. Cognitive load theory has primarily focused on this aspect, examining how the inherent complexity of learning materials demands mental resources. This form of effort is data-driven, arising directly from the task’s requirements. While essential for understanding cognitive processes in learning, this view is limited as it often overlooks the role of motivational factors.
- Effort-by-need frustration: affective-emotional demands. The second dimension, effort-by-need frustration, shifts the focus to the learner’s emotional and affective experiences. This form of effort emerges from the task’s aversive or strenuous nature, such as feelings of stress or boredom. It’s a response to the psychological demands of learning, not just the cognitive ones. This aspect highlights the importance of considering the emotional well-being of learners in educational settings.
- Effort-by-allocation: the role of motivation. Perhaps the most significant contribution of the study is the emphasis on effort-by-allocation, which is directly linked to motivational factors. It involves the willingness of learners to engage with and persist in a task, influenced by their expectancy and value appraisals. This form of effort reflects the self-initiated aspect of learning, where students allocate their mental resources based on their motivation.
The study’s findings have profound implications for both instructional design and research. It calls for a more integrated approach that combines cognitive and motivational perspectives. Educators are encouraged to design learning environments that not only consider the cognitive demands of tasks but also address the emotional and motivational needs of learners.
For researchers, this approach offers a new lens to study effort in learning. It suggests that future studies should not only measure cognitive load but also account for affective, emotional, and motivational factors. This holistic view can lead to more effective educational strategies that cater to the diverse needs of students.