Home Health & Wellness New Nanoparticle Therapy Enhances Anti-Tumour Immunity, Study Shows

New Nanoparticle Therapy Enhances Anti-Tumour Immunity, Study Shows

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Researchers have developed an innovative approach using non-coding dsDNA-based nanoparticles to activate phagocytes and enhance the immune system’s ability to fight tumours. This new method could significantly improve treatments for various cancers by augmenting the effectiveness of existing therapies such as checkpoint inhibitors and radiation.

The study, led by Tiphaine Delaunay and colleagues from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, demonstrated that these specially crafted nanoparticles, which mimic herpes simplex virus (HSV) virotherapy, can effectively activate the STING pathway in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This activation prompts the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that target cancer cells, boosting the body’s natural immune response to malignancies.

The findings were published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine

The nanoparticles, loaded with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), exploit the body’s innate immune signaling pathways that are typically triggered by microbial infections or cellular DNA damage. By simulating the effects of microbial DNA, the nanoparticles trigger a potent immune response without replicating like a virus, thus offering a safer alternative to live viral therapies. The study found that these nanoparticles could synergize with interferons and radiation, further enhancing their therapeutic effect against tumours.

Delaunay’s team explored the use of these nanoparticles in combination with established cancer treatments. They found that, when used alongside checkpoint inhibitors, which help the immune system recognise and attack cancer cells, the nanoparticles significantly amplified the treatment’s effectiveness. This combination therapy led to a more robust activation of CTLs, crucial for destroying cancer cells.

At the heart of this research is the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) pathway, a critical component of the immune response to cancer. By activating STING in APCs, the nanoparticles help overcome one of the major hurdles in cancer treatment: the ability of tumour cells to evade the immune system. This evasion is often due to the suppression of STING signalling in cancer cells, which the nanoparticles effectively counteract.

The promising results of this study suggest that nanoparticles could be used to treat a wide range of cancers. The researchers are optimistic that their findings will lead to new immunotherapeutic strategies that are less invasive and more effective than current options. Further clinical trials will be necessary to determine the full potential and safety of this approach in humans.

© Copyright 2014–2034 Psychreg Ltd