Home Mental Health & Well-Being Mass Shootings and Mental Illness: A Complex Relationship

Mass Shootings and Mental Illness: A Complex Relationship

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The unfortunate rise in mass shootings across the US and other parts of the world has sparked a heated debate on gun control and mental health. While mental illness is often cited as a primary factor in these tragic events, the reality of the situation is far more complex

Mental health and mass shootings: the data

In the aftermath of mass shootings, it is common for the media and the public to search for an explanation, and mental illness often emerges as a go-to rationale. However, research has shown that the majority of people with mental illness are not violent, and only a small percentage of violent acts can be attributed to individuals with mental health problems.

A study published in the American Journal of Public Health analysed data from 235 mass shootings in the US between 1982 and 2021. It revealed that only 22% of the shooters had a diagnosed mental illness, while the majority did not have a history of psychiatric treatment. Furthermore, research conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health concluded that the vast majority of individuals with serious mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, are no more likely to be violent than the general population.

However, it is important to note that certain mental health conditions, such as untreated psychosis or a history of substance abuse, may increase the risk of violence. But it is crucial to remember that these factors do not guarantee that an individual will engage in violent acts, let alone mass shootings.

The need for a comprehensive approach

Given the data, it is clear that a singular focus on mental illness as the cause of mass shootings is not only misleading, but it also undermines efforts to address the underlying issues that contribute to these tragic events. Instead, a comprehensive approach is needed, one that takes into account a variety of factors such as access to firearms, social isolation, and cultural influences.

For instance, studies have shown that access to firearms is a significant factor in mass shootings. The United States has some of the most permissive gun laws in the world, and research has consistently demonstrated a strong correlation between the availability of firearms and mass shootings. By implementing stricter gun control measures and improving background check systems, the potential for mass shootings could be significantly reduced.

Another crucial factor in preventing mass shootings is addressing social isolation, which has been identified as a common characteristic among perpetrators. Building supportive communities and providing resources for individuals who feel alienated or disconnected from society can help to mitigate the risk of violence. This includes fostering inclusive environments in schools and workplaces, as well as providing access to mental health services for those in need.

Lastly, cultural influences play a significant role in mass shootings, particularly the glorification of violence and the emphasis on individualism in certain societies. By promoting nonviolent conflict resolution and cultivating a sense of collective responsibility, it may be possible to reduce the occurrence of mass shootings.

The danger of stigmatisation

While understanding the relationship between mental illness and mass shootings is important, it is crucial to avoid stigmatising those with mental health challenges. The vast majority of individuals with mental illness are not dangerous, and perpetuating the stereotype that they are violent can have serious consequences, including discouraging people from seeking help or causing them to be ostracised from their communities.

Instead, efforts should be made to educate the public about mental health issues, promote understanding, and reduce stigma. This includes providing information about the variety of mental health conditions and their symptoms, as well as emphasising the importance of early intervention and treatment. Encouraging open dialogue about mental health and sharing stories of recovery can help to dispel misconceptions and create a more compassionate society.

Additionally, it is crucial to invest in mental health care infrastructure, ensuring that individuals have access to appropriate services and support. This includes funding for mental health care providers, increasing the availability of affordable treatment options, and promoting mental health education in schools and workplaces. By providing these resources, society can help individuals with mental health challenges lead fulfilling lives and reduce the likelihood of violence.


The relationship between mass shootings and mental illness is complex and multifaceted. While mental health issues can be a contributing factor in some cases, it is important to recognise that the majority of people with mental illness are not violent. A comprehensive approach to prevention is necessary, one that addresses factors such as access to firearms, social isolation, and cultural influences.

It’s also essential to avoid stigmatising those with mental health challenges, as this can have detrimental effects on their well-being and discourage them from seeking help. Instead, efforts should be focused on promoting understanding, reducing stigma, and providing access to mental health care. By taking these steps, we can work towards a safer and more compassionate society, where tragedies like mass shootings are far less common.

Robert Haynes, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle.

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