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How Quickly Can You Overdose on Pills?

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Many people take prescription and over-the-counter medications in the modern age. But drugs are only safe when you are following instructions. You need to understand how can you overdose on pills and how to avoid it. This knowledge is the difference between life and death. There are many factors that can lead to an overdose. To help you avoid the risk, the Canadian Centre for Addictions has created a comprehensive guide on identifying the first signs of overdose and how to prevent it. Our goal is to arm you with the knowledge you need to act quickly. You’ll find out about the types of pills that are most commonly involved and learn helpful tips on what to do if you suspect someone has overdosed. By understanding these crucial aspects, you can help prevent overdoses and keep yourself and your loved ones safe.

What is a pill overdose?

A human body can process a limited amount of medication at a time. Taking too much or not following the prescription leads to severe and often life-threatening effects. Overdosing on pills can occur by accident, such as when someone mistakenly takes an extra dose or intentionally, in an attempt of self-harm or recreational misuse. When too much of a drug enters the body, it overwhelms the systems responsible for processing and removing the substance before it can build up. This disruption results in a range of symptoms, from nausea and dizziness to respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. The risk and severity of a pill overdose vary depending on the type of pill, the dose, and the individual’s health condition. Some medications can be toxic even in relatively small doses, while others become dangerous after prolonged use. Regardless, the consequences of a pill overdose are always serious and should be treated as a medical emergency.

What affects the speed of overdose

There are a number of factors that can affect how quickly a pill overdose occurs. first is the type of medication. Opioids, for example, act rapidly and heavily affect the central nervous system. A large dose of opioids quickly leads to slow and shallow breathing or stops altogether. Benzodiazepines, used for anxiety and sleep disorders, have a quick sedative effect, which rapidly makes a person unconscious. Over-the-counter medications, like acetaminophen, take longer to show severe symptoms. However, they build up in organs such as the liver over time and cause serious damage once the toxicity overwhelms the system. Individuals who regularly take high doses of medication may develop a tolerance. They need to consume even higher amounts to achieve the same effect, which increases the risk of overdosing. Individual health factors, such as age, weight, and pre-existing medical conditions, can also affect the speed of pill overdose. In particular, the elderly and people with liver or kidney problems are particularly vulnerable.

Immediate overdose

An immediate overdose of pills happens within a few minutes to a few hours. Opioids and benzodiazepines are the main causes of this rapid onset. These drugs are fast-acting, and their effects on the central nervous system can quickly overwhelm the body’s ability to cope.

Opioids like oxycodone or fentanyl can cause respiratory depression almost immediately when taken in large doses. Similarly, overdosing on benzodiazepines, which are often prescribed for anxiety and sleep disorders, can result in loss of consciousness within 10–15 minutes. The speed at which these symptoms develop leaves little room for delay. You must recognise and respond to the signs of a pill overdose as quickly as possible.

Delayed overdose

A delayed overdose of pills can take several hours or even days. This type of overdose is often associated with medications that build up in the body over time or have slower absorption rates. Over-the-counter medications, such as acetaminophen, are a prime example. When taken in large amounts, acetaminophen doesn’t cause immediate symptoms. Instead, it gradually leads to liver failure. This delay makes it hard to identify and seek timely treatment.

Extended-release medications are the cause of another delayed overdose. These pills are designed to release their active ingredients slowly over time. However, if too many of these pills are taken at once, the body can be overwhelmed as the medication continues to release. As a result, the overdose will cause lasting and more damaging effects. And the worst part is that symptoms might not be apparent until significant damage has already been done.

Why time frame matters

You should always keep in mind that some pills can cause immediate reactions while others lead to delayed effects. It is crucial in a pill overdose scenario. Immediate overdoses require rapid intervention, often involving emergency services and possibly life-saving measures like CPR or the administration of antidotes such as naloxone for opioid overdoses. Delayed overdoses, while seemingly less urgent at a glance, call for constant attention to spot the early warning signs and react before the damage is done. 

Common pills that may cause an overdose

There are a few types of medications that cause pill overdoses the most. Prescription medications like opioids and benzodiazepines are major culprits due to their effects on the central nervous system. Opioids, such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, can quickly lead to an overdose if not used precisely as directed. In extreme cases, it suppresses the respiratory system to the point of failure, which is often fatal if not treated immediately.

Benzodiazepines, such as Xanax and Valium, are prescribed for anxiety and sleep disorders. While effective for their intended uses, they can cause severe sedation and respiratory depression when taken in large quantities. It becomes even more dangerous when these medications are mixed with other substances, like alcohol, which can make the depressant effects worse.

Over-the-counter medications can also lead to dangerous overdoses. Acetaminophen, a common pain reliever, can cause heavy liver damage when taken in large doses. This type of overdose comes with no immediate symptoms, but damage can be extensive and potentially fatal if not addressed quickly. Even cold and allergy medications often contain ingredients that, when taken above the prescribed dosage, affect the heart and nervous system, leading to serious health issues.

Early symptoms of pill overdose

During a pill overdose, the first symptoms vary widely depending on the type of medication involved and the amount taken. Early signs of a pill overdose are often relatively mild and easily mistaken for other conditions. Nausea and vomiting are common early indicators as the body attempts to expel the excess medication. They frequently come with confusion and dizziness. It becomes difficult for the person to perform everyday tasks or think clearly. Slurred speech and impaired coordination are also early signs of overdosing on pills. These symptoms occur because many medications affect the central nervous system. The effect causes delayed reaction times and lower motor skills. It’s crucial to recognise these signs early, as they can quickly progress to more severe and life-threatening conditions if not addressed promptly.

Severe symptoms of pill overdose

As the overdose progresses, the symptoms become more severe and require immediate medical attention. One of the most alarming signs of a severe pill overdose is passing out. When a person becomes unresponsive, it indicates that the drug has overtaken their body. In this state, their vital functions may be compromised. This can quickly lead to a coma if not treated urgently. Overdosing on many medications, particularly opioids and benzodiazepines, can depress the respiratory system. Symptoms such as slow, shallow breathing or stopping completely are life-threatening. Seizures and convulsions are also severe symptoms of a pill overdose. Excessive medication severely disrupts the nervous system, which can result in uncontrolled muscle movements and potential harm.

Prevention of future overdoses

Preventing future overdoses involves both understanding the risks and making necessary changes to medication management. If the overdose was accidental, take note to avoid similar mistakes in the future. You should seek information on how to take medications correctly if you are taking them without a prescription. Make sure to communicate with healthcare providers to receive proper guidance. You might also try using pill organisers to prevent accidental double dosing.

If you have intentionally taken too many pills and overdosed, it’s crucial to address the underlying issues that led to this decision. Consider seeking mental health support. Counselling and therapy can provide much-needed assistance in coping with reasons for consuming larger doses of medications. Ensure that medications are stored safely and out of reach of those who might misuse them. Medical professionals may provide additional tips based on your individual circumstances. 

Takeaway

Overdosing pills can happen with both prescription and over-the-counter medications. Depending on the type of drug, the overdose may happen within minutes or after months as it accumulates in the body. Some medications are particularly risky to overdose on. Opioids, Benzodiazepines and other prescription-only medications act very quickly, and larger-than-recommended doses can quickly cause adverse effects. While this is going on, human bodies process antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and even cough and allergy medications very slowly. When taken for a prolonged period of time, they accumulate in vital organs like the liver and kidneys, causing heavy damage that may permanently cripple a person.

To avoid an overdose, be mindful of the type of medicine you’re taking and always follow the instructions on the bottle or those provided by the doctor who prescribed it. Additionally, develop your own means of controlling how much you take. It may be as simple as using a pill organiser, or you might want to seek psychological help to deal with a possible addiction. Regardless, the most important thing in preventing overdosing on pills is awareness. Keep yourself and your loved ones safe by spotting the symptoms early and reacting in a timely manner.




Adam Mulligan, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle.

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