Home Health & Wellness How Many States Have Their Own OSHA Plans?

How Many States Have Their Own OSHA Plans?

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Are you aware of how state and federal OSHA plans differ from one another? States are able to manage their own work safety and health programmes, as per the provisions of Section 18 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970. They are also known as OSHA State Plans, but they still need to adhere to minimal federal standards. Stay informed about these distinctions and ensure compliance by incorporating comprehensive training programmes such as OSHA 360, which covers both federal and state-specific regulations, fostering a well-rounded understanding of occupational safety and health practices.

While not every state develops its own OSHA plan, 22 states in the US administer these programmes, which apply to workers in both the public and private sectors. However, this article explores the concept of state OSHA plans, their significance, and the states that have chosen to implement their own programmes.

How do OSHA state plans work?

OSHA State Plans operate as unique occupational safety and health programmes developed by individual states and territories within the US. These plans are designed to complement and, in some cases, surpass the federal OSHA standards to address specific regional needs and industries. Below are key aspects explaining how OSHA state plans work:

Development and approval

The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration must receive a detailed proposal from each state that wants to create its own OSHA plans. This proposal outlines the state’s commitment to creating and enforcing occupational safety and health standards that are at least as effective as the federal OSHA standards. Once approved, the state assumes responsibility for developing and administering its own safety and health programme.


All employees in the state’s authority, whether in the public or private sector, must be covered by OSHA State Plans. This covers employees of commercial companies, state and local government departments, and other workplaces. Enforcing safety and health regulations and carrying out compliance checks are the responsibilities of the state.

Adaptation to Local Needs

Customising OSHA state plans to meet the unique requirements of each state or territory is one of its main benefits. Different regions may have unique industries, hazards, and workforce characteristics. State authorities, being more attuned to local conditions, can develop regulations that are more responsive to the challenges faced by employers and workers in their jurisdiction.

Monitoring and evaluation 

Federal OSHA still has control. Even though states that have OSHA plans play an important role in regulating workplace safety, state programmes are kept up to date with federal requirements and remain effective through regular monitoring and review. The Federal OSHA may take over enforcement of safety and health standards in a state if it does not meet these requirements.

Enforcement and inspection 

To ensure that safety regulations are followed within their borders, OSHA State Plans carry out audits and investigations. When something is broken, they are able to cite people and impose penalties. For all workers, regardless of industry, the goal is to establish a safe and healthy work environment.

Coordination with Federal OSHA

States with approved plans maintain considerable autonomy; however, they work together with the federal OSHA on a number of issues. This includes exchanging data, working together on projects, and cooperating on problems that might transcend state lines.

How many states have their own OSHA plans?

There are a total of 27 states along with two territories that adhere to the OSHA State Plan out of the 50 states, five territories, and Washington, D.C. The programmes in five states and one territory are exclusively for the public sector, although the majority covers the private sector.

However, OSHA has authority over the majority of private-sector workplaces in 29 states (as well as the four territories including the District of Columbia). This covers both states with plans exclusive to the public sector and states with none at all.

The states and territories with their own OSHA plans are as follows:

  1. Alaska
  2. Arizona
  3. California
  4. Hawaii
  5. Indiana
  6. Iowa
  7. Kentucky
  8. Maryland
  9. Michigan
  10. Minnesota
  11. Nevada
  12. New Mexico
  13. North Carolina
  14. Oregon
  15. Puerto Rico
  16. South Carolina
  17. Tennessee
  18. Utah
  19. Vermont
  20. Virginia
  21. Washington
  22. Wyoming
  23. Connecticut
  24. Illinois
  25. Maine
  26. New Jersey
  27. New York
  28. Virgin Islands

It’s important to note that these states and territories have developed their own OSHA plans with the approval of federal OSHA. The plans must be as effective as, or more stringent than, the federal OSHA standards to ensure a consistent level of worker protection.

Each state’s plan is unique, reflecting the specific industries and hazards prevalent within its borders. The existence of state OSHA plans highlights the flexibility within the OSHA framework to accommodate the diverse needs of different regions. States, with their own plans, assume responsibility for enforcing workplace safety standards through inspections, consultations, and enforcement actions.

Why are state OSHA plans significant?

OSHA state plans are important for a number of reasons. First of all, they give states the flexibility to customise their workplace safety laws to the unique requirements and dominant industries in their areas. States with a large concentration of manufacturing, for instance, might be more concerned about safety than states with substantial agricultural activity. Additionally, industries with specific equipment requirements, such as forklifts, can benefit from state plans by ensuring that safety regulations, including forklift certification standards, are tailored to address the specific needs and risks associated with their operations.

Second, a more customised and adaptable approach to workplace safety is promoted via state OSHA plans. The ability of state authorities to successfully address issues stems from their heightened awareness of the distinctive difficulties and features of their various regions.

Thirdly, the ability to enforce workplace safety regulations at the state level is made possible by state OSHA plans. The majority of workplace inspections, consultations, and other actions are handled by states with authorized plans, although federal OSHA maintains power in states without their own plans.

Is state-specific OSHA training required?

Whether you live in an “OSHA or non-OSHA” state, most workers will benefit from training on federal regulations. You may require state-specific training if you live in a state like California because their OSHA State Plan differs greatly from other states’ plans. In other situations, such as New York, the OSHA State Plan requirements are largely the same as federal law; however, you must take into consideration the NYC SST’s more stringent training requirements.


State OSHA plans represent a crucial aspect of the broader occupational safety and health landscape in the United States. The existence of these plans reflects the recognition that workplace safety needs can vary significantly from one state to another. Allowing states to create and carry out their own initiatives makes the OSHA framework more flexible and responsive to the different needs of the employment sector in the United States.

As the landscape of work evolves, it will be essential to continue evaluating and adapting state OSHA plans to ensure they effectively address emerging challenges and contribute to the overall well-being of the nation’s workforce.

David Radar, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle.

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