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Efonidipine: A Comprehensive Review of its Pharmacology and Clinical Uses

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Efonidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that was first approved for use in Japan in 1995. It has since become an important treatment option for hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions. 

Pharmacology of efonidipine

Efonidipine works by blocking the L-type calcium channels in smooth muscle cells, which results in a decrease in intracellular calcium concentration. This causes relaxation of the smooth muscle cells and dilation of the blood vessels, leading to a decrease in blood pressure. Efonidipine also has a vasodilatory effect on the coronary arteries, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.

Efonidipine has a relatively short half-life of approximately 4–6 hours, which means that it needs to be taken twice daily to maintain therapeutic blood levels. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations reached within 1–2 hours.

Clinical uses of efonidipine

Efonidipine is primarily used for the treatment of hypertension. It has been shown to be effective in reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Efonidipine has also been found to be effective in combination therapy with other antihypertensive drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers.

In addition to its use in hypertension, efonidipine has also been studied for its potential benefits in other cardiovascular conditions. It has been found to improve endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease, and may also have a protective effect on the heart muscle in patients with heart failure.

Efonidipine has also been studied for its potential use in preventing stroke. A study published in the Journal of Hypertension found that efonidipine was more effective in preventing stroke than a combination of other antihypertensive drugs.

Side effects of efonidipine

Like all medications, efonidipine can cause side effects. The most common side effects include dizziness, headache, and flushing. These side effects are generally mild and transient, and usually resolve on their own.

Less common side effects include peripheral oedema, which can occur in up to 8% of patients. Efonidipine may also cause hypotension, particularly in patients with low blood pressure or those taking other medications that lower blood pressure.

Takeaway

Efonidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that has been found to be effective in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions. Its vasodilatory effects on the blood vessels and coronary arteries make it a valuable treatment option for patients with these conditions.

While efonidipine is generally well-tolerated, it can cause side effects in some patients. As with all medications, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of efonidipine with your healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Efonidipine is a valuable addition to the armamentarium of medications available for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions. Its unique pharmacological profile and potential benefits in preventing stroke make it a promising option for patients with these conditions.


Ellen Diamond, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle

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