Home Mental Health & Well-Being Could Saunas Be a Viable Complementary Treatment for Depression?

Could Saunas Be a Viable Complementary Treatment for Depression?

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With mental health conditions like depression on the rise, alternative treatments are gaining more interest as safe, low-cost therapeutic options. Emerging research suggests that, along with exercise and sleep health, regular exposure to saunas may provide mental health benefits and help regulate mood disorders like depression.

The science behind sauna therapy

Sauna therapy, a practice with ancient roots, has gained scientific interest for its potential health benefits. At its core, sauna therapy involves exposure to high temperatures in a controlled environment, which can trigger various physiological responses. Research has shown that regular sauna use can have multiple benefits for cardiovascular health. It’s believed that the heat induces a rise in heart rate and dilation of blood vessels, similar to the effects of moderate exercise. This cardiovascular workout can help lower blood pressure, improve circulation, and potentially reduce the risk of heart disease.

Hormesis: a positive stress response

The concept of deliberately exposing the body to short periods of heat stress, such as through sauna use or hot baths, is rooted in the principle of hormesis. Hormesis is a biological phenomenon where a beneficial effect results from exposure to low doses of an agent that is otherwise harmful at higher doses. In the context of heat stress, this means that controlled, short-term exposure to high temperatures can activate positive stress responses in the body, leading to various health benefits.

One of the primary responses to heat stress is the activation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). These proteins play a crucial role in helping cells cope with stress by repairing damaged proteins and protecting cells from further damage. The increase in HSPs can enhance cellular resilience, potentially reducing the risk of certain diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and some forms of cancer.

Increased serotonin and endorphin levels

Sauna sessions activate the neurotransmitters serotonin and endorphins in the brain, regulating mood, promoting relaxation, and reducing anxiety.

This activation leads to a calming effect on the mind, similar to the sensation one might experience after a good workout or meditation. The increase in serotonin levels is particularly beneficial as it’s often known as the ‘happiness hormone’, playing a key role in preventing depression and regulating anxiety. Additionally, the release of endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers, can lead to an immediate sense of relief from physical discomfort and contribute to a more positive outlook on life.

This neurochemical change is one of the reasons why sauna therapy is increasingly recommended as a complement to traditional mental health treatments, offering a natural way to boost mental well-being. The warmth and quiet environment of the sauna also provide a space for mindfulness and introspection, further enhancing its therapeutic benefits for mental health.

Enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

Sauna therapy boosts BDNF, a protein responsible for neuron growth and protection, benefiting mental health. BDNF plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity, which is the brain’s ability to adapt and reorganise itself, a key factor in learning and memory. This increase in BDNF can lead to improved cognitive functions, including enhanced memory, focus, and learning capacity. Moreover, higher levels of BDNF are linked to a reduced risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, suggesting that sauna therapy could be a preventive measure against such conditions.

The elevation of BDNF through sauna use can aid in alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety, as BDNF is known to have a positive effect on mood regulation. This further emphasises the potential of sauna therapy as a non-pharmacological intervention to support mental health and cognitive well-being.

Anti-inflammation activation

Sauna heat stimulates anti-inflammatory processes, countering chronic inflammation, which negatively impacts mental health. Chronic inflammation is increasingly recognised as a contributing factor to various mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and mood disorders. By promoting anti-inflammatory responses, sauna therapy can help alleviate these conditions. The heat induces the production of anti-inflammatory compounds in the body, such as cytokines, which play a vital role in reducing inflammation throughout the system.

This reduction in inflammation not only benefits physical health by alleviating conditions like arthritis and muscle soreness but also has a profound positive impact on mental well-being. It helps create a healthier environment for brain function, potentially reducing the symptoms associated with mental health disorders. This underlines the holistic benefits of sauna therapy, addressing both physical and mental aspects of health.

Improved stress resilience

Frequent sauna exposure trains the body to better regulate stress, decreasing cortisol production and conferring lasting stress resilience. This adaptation is akin to a form of thermal stress conditioning, where repeated exposure to the high heat of a sauna teaches the body to manage stress more effectively.

As the body becomes accustomed to the sauna environment, it learns to regulate its response to stress, leading to a decrease in cortisol, the body’s primary stress hormone. This reduction in cortisol can have significant benefits for overall health, as chronic high cortisol levels are linked to a range of health issues, including anxiety, depression, and immune system suppression.

The consistent use of sauna therapy can, therefore, help in fostering a state of relaxation and calmness, not just during the sauna session but in everyday life as well. Over time, this can translate into improved mental health and a greater ability to handle stress, making sauna therapy an effective tool for enhancing long-term psychological resilience.

The psychological benefits

Beyond the biochemical impacts, saunas offer mental relief through meditative, quiet, and warm surroundings. Acts of self-care and focus on present-moment contentment in saunas are calming, centring, and restorative.

This environment fosters a focus on present-moment awareness, encouraging individuals to let go of external stressors and immerse themselves in the soothing warmth. Such acts of self-care in the sauna are not only calming but also centering, helping to restore a sense of balance and peace within the mind.

The warmth envelops the body, creating a cocoon-like atmosphere that is conducive to deep relaxation and introspection. This serene setting can be particularly beneficial for mental health, as it provides a space for individuals to disconnect from the chaos of the outside world and reconnect with their inner selves, promoting a sense of well-being and mental clarity.

Considerations and Recommendations

Experts suggest integrating home sauna use as part of comprehensive mental health treatment plans. Tailor sauna protocols to individual needs and consult a healthcare provider before starting.

Sauna bathing’s strong safety profile and mood-elevating abilities make it a promising complementary therapy for mental health. For those dealing with anxiety, trauma, or depression, regular sauna sessions could be an accessible, low-risk pathway towards inner peace and happiness. At the very least, a warm sauna session is likely to melt away stress and brighten your outlook.




David Radar, a psychology graduate from the University of Hertfordshire, has a keen interest in the fields of mental health, wellness, and lifestyle.

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