In a world of instant gratification, where everything from meals to entertainment is available at the click of a button, the concept of waiting for rewards feels somewhat antiquated. This phenomenon, termed “delayed gratification”, refers to the ability to resist the temptation for an immediate reward and wait for a larger reward later. The classic Marshmallow Test, conducted by psychologist Walter Mischel in the 1960s, is often cited to measure a child’s ability to delay gratification. But is this innate ability solely based on individual self-control? Or does the culture in which one is raised play a significant role?
There’s no denying the intrinsic value of self-control. Numerous studies correlate the ability to delay gratification with various positive outcomes in life, such as academic success, better mental health, and reduced susceptibility to certain negative behaviours. Some individuals seem naturally equipped to wait for the larger reward, demonstrating patience and self-restraint.
But self-control doesn’t merely sprout from within. It’s shaped by one’s upbringing, experiences, and the environment. A child growing up in an environment where resources are scarce may not trust that the bigger reward will come later, hence opting for the immediate one. In this instance, choosing the instant reward isn’t a lack of self-control but a rational decision based on past experiences.
Culture profoundly influences our behaviours, values, and beliefs. It dictates what’s acceptable and what’s not, moulds our perception of time, and even determines how we view rewards.
- Concept of time. In some cultures, the focus is on the present, emphasising the importance of living in the moment and enjoying life as it comes. Conversely, other cultures prioritise the future, encouraging planning and patience. This fundamental difference impacts the value placed on immediate versus delayed rewards.
- Value systems. Societies with a collective mindset, where community and family are centred, might approach delayed gratification differently from individualistic cultures. In a collective society, delaying personal gratification could be seen as a sacrifice for the greater good of the community or family. Meanwhile, in individualistic cultures, it might be more about personal achievement and long-term benefits.
- Economic security. It’s crucial to recognise that in some cultures, the future is uncertain due to economic instability or other challenges. In such situations, opting for immediate rewards is not just a choice but a necessity.
Bridging the gap
While self-control is undeniably an essential skill, casting judgement based on one’s ability to delay gratification may be an oversimplification. A child in the Marshmallow Test, for example, isn’t just testing their patience. They’re acting based on a myriad of factors, including their personal experiences, trust in the system, and their cultural background.
Moreover, as the world becomes more globalised, it’s not uncommon for individuals to be exposed to multiple cultures throughout their life. This exposure can lead to a mix of values and beliefs, complicating the notion of delayed gratification even further.
Delayed gratification is not a straightforward concept. Yes, it does involve self-control. However, it is equally, if not more, influenced by the cultural environment in which one is nurtured. As we navigate this complex world, it’s essential to approach this topic with nuance and empathy, recognising that there’s no one-size-fits-all answer.
In a world that often feels like it’s moving at the speed of light, the choice between now and later is more intricate than it appears on the surface. Let’s appreciate the depth and diversity of human experiences and decisions, understanding that behind every choice is a story shaped by both individual will and the embrace of culture.
Olivia Jennings is a freelance writer and cultural analyst from Kansas, with a penchant for rare teas and even rarer philosophies.